Probe high extravasation rates

An investigation of extravasation in City Hospital NHS Trust, Birmingham

AM Jones, BSc, MRPharms and A Stanley, BSc, MSc, MRPharms, Director of Oncology, Pharmacy Department, City Hospital NHS Trust.

Abstract.

This study investigates the incidence of extravasation and the factors that influence it in City Hospital NHS Trust, Birmingham – a typical district general hospital. The incidence established was 39 per cent, almost double that of previous published reports.1,2 The majority of IV administrations which extravasated did so within 72 hours, and the most common drug to extravasate was morphine sulphate. Age was an important factor, with elderly patients appearing to be more prone to extravasation. There were also some differences in the incidence of extravasation depending on cannulation technique, IV drug therapy, the patient’s circulatory status and their ability to communicate. Overall, extravasation was a problem within the non-specialist wards at City Hospital. However, whilst this high incidence rate was not leading to serious sequelae, it was resulting in high patient morbidity.3

References

  1. Cox K, Stuart Hains R, Abdine G, Crygiel J, Raghawan D. The management of cytotoxic drug extravasation: guidelines drawn up by a working party for the Clinical Oncological Society of Australia. Med J Australia Feb 1988;148:185-189.
  2. MacCara ME. Extravasation: a hazard of intravenous therapy. Drug Intell & Clin Pharm Oct 1983;17:713-717.
  3. Stanley A. Data on file with the National Extravasation Database, 1996.
  4. Stanley A. Managing complications of chemotherapy. In: Allwood M, Stanley A, Wright P (eds). The Cytotoxic Handbook 3rd edtn. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press, 1997:105-125.
  5. Smith R. extravasation of intravenous fluids. Br J Parental Ther 1985; 6(2):30-35.
  6. Ignoffo RJ, Friedman MA. Therapy of local toxicities caused by extravasation of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1980;7:17-27.
  7. Gault DT. Extravasation Injuries. Br J Plastic Surg 1992;4(2):91-96.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Post